With regards to cyberbullying, article 27 shows that the longer adolescents spend on the internet and cell phone, the more vulnerable they are to bullying 48 , and that effective parental supervision of internet and cell phone reduces exposure and ensures more healthy use of social media. Both bullies and targets of cyberbullying tend to have lower self-esteem than non victims.
Should people stop the bullying? | ijokesygym.tk
Using electronic devices such as computers, video games and television for extended periods of times is associated with bullying Alcohol consumption, illicit drug use and suffering physical aggression is also associated with all types of bullying except name-calling. There is a strong association between threatening behavior, theft, physical abuse and teasing and risk behaviors, such as being involved in physical fights, accidents and carrying a weapon.
Comparative studies cite various adolescent health risk behaviors that are strongly associated with bullying, thus showing that this type of violence must not be ignored and that urgent measures are needed to manage this problem Adolescents that received support from their family after having been bullied at school demonstrated less aggressive attitudes when they returned to school.
Overly punitive, lenient without setting limits or negligent parenting, exposure to violence games, films, music and a social environment in which the adolescent experiences a long process marginalization humiliation, abandonment, isolation are associated with violent events, such as school shootings perpetrated by adolescents involving subsequent shooter suicide There is no association between bullying and level of maternal education The signs of bullying among children and adolescents include headaches, abdominal pains, insomnia, nocturnal enuresis bedwetting , depression, anxiety, missing school, lower academic performance, self-aggression, thoughts of suicide and attempted suicide, missing belongings, bodily injury, torn or dirty clothing and aggressiveness.
They may also constantly ask for money and be hungry after school, which suggests that other adolescents take their money during break 4 , Involvement in cyberbullying can lead to an increase in emotional disorders, such as symptoms of depression, anxiety, a decrease in empathic capacity and suicidal ideation Article 13 presents accounts of pupils who repeated the school year and changed classes after being repeatedly subjected to name calling Witnesses are also affected in their academic performance and their social environment by experiencing a violent environment Furthermore, being bullied is also associated with depressive, apathetic, cyclothymic and volatile tendencies, sadness, low self-esteem, reduced ability to focus, self-discipline control , and capacity to confront and solve problems coping , and greater emotional fragility in adult life It can therefore be deduced that discrimination, intolerance and physical aggression among peers — aspects that constitute of this subtype of violence — have harmful effects on the mental health and academic life of pupils, therefore affecting their intellectual development, and may have repercussions on the family environment 4 , Five of the 25 articles showed that adolescents underestimate the seriousness and gravity of bullying, perhaps due to lack of guidance regarding the repercussions of such aggression 29 , 35 , 43 , 45 , Bullying is repeatedly tolerated by the victim in name of friendship and the emotional protection involved with belonging to a group Article 1 shows that Some adolescents tend to retaliate to name-calling with name-calling, which often evolves into physical aggression, thus reinforcing the cycle of aggression The majority of bullies think that it is funny to bully their peers 29 , and many mention that dominating their classmates generates a feeling of well-being or satisfaction, prestige and leadership, and view this attitude as a positive quality 27 , The lack of awareness among adolescents about bullying and its consequences seems to be a contributing factor to bullying and should be addressed by bullying prevention policies 6.
Article 14 shows that the majority of targets of bullying become angry and either defend themselves or ignore the aggression, while only The witnesses did not do anything to help the victims, which suggests fear of retaliation from the bullies 29 , which is corroborated by article 23, which emphasizes that the majority of witnesses feel compassion for the victim and do not like to watch scenes of bullying, but do not defend the victims for fear of becoming victims themselves Some bullied adolescents mentioned feeling outraged, citing that one day bullies could feel the pain of discrimination Article 14, involving adolescents with an average age of 14 years, showed that For some pupils, bullying can contribute markedly to turning school into an uncomfortable and confrontational environment.
Adult intervention in peer conflict, to set limits and show the importance of treating others with respect, is of fundamental importance for ensuring a healthy school environment 59 , Certain articles mention the need for an interdisciplinary approach education, health, family and community to strengthen anti-bullying actions and effectively address the emotional and mental health issues related to bullying 27 , 35 , 42 , 43 , 46 - The adoption of a participatory and multidisciplinary approach to continuing health education targeting young people delivered by Family Health Teams has the potential to promote significant improvements in child and adolescent behavior Programs that address gender differences in bullying are also suggested, given that boys and girls experience different types of bullying behaviors 41 , Articles also recommend research into other factors associated with bullying, such as parenting styles, family violence, performance at school, relationships with parents and teachers, and other daily life issues, in order to obtain a clearer understanding of this type of violence 28 , An analysis of the effectiveness of bullying intervention programs based on articles showed that The present study found only two articles that used collaborative or interventional tools.
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Article 1 indicates signs and symptoms of bullying described in the section on consequences above to aid pediatricians, other health professionals and family members in general to identify bullying; while study 18, involving focus groups of pupils and teachers, made a positive evaluation of restorative circles conversation circles held under the guidance of a skilled facilitator as a tool to stimulate dialogue, support pupils and educators, and resolve conflicts, particularly those involving violence An example is a study involving fifth and sixth year pupils in Lisbon, Portugal conducted by a nurse, which aimed to reduce school violence through adopting the following strategies: multidisciplinary teamwork; changes in school policy to promote a reduction in violence through the implementation of an educational project; meetings between teachers and family members to develop violence prevention strategies; interventions with classes using techniques that reinforce positive behavior in the face of violence situations; and direct intervention with pupils involved in aggressive situations identified with the help of teachers and school psychologists.
The results of this intervention, which enabled the mobilization of a multidisciplinary team, showed a decrease in the rate of bullying and highlight the important role played by nurses in such interventions in schools and in research With regard to cyberbullying, schools should regulate and promote parental control of the use of devices such as laptops and smartphones 12 , Although article 4 did not suggest any interventions, it promotes reflection on the approach to managing bullying in schools, suggesting that this type of violence is rooted in prejudice.
Prevention and control of bullying can therefore only be effective if actions address the issue of violence itself barbarism and the stereotypes imposed by society, suggesting that stereotypes generate intolerance, which in turn shape and drive prejudice and bullying The present study shows that over half of the studies carried out in Brazil used quantitative approaches, principally cross-sectional methods, and that the central focus of these studies was to determine the factors associated with bullying.
The studies showed a high prevalence of bullying among Brazilian adolescents and gender differences, whereby boys are more likely to be bullied. The studies also highlighted a strong association between bullying and risk behavior, including use of alcohol, illicit drug use, fighting, skipping classes, and showed that the emotional and psychological consequences of bullying arise during adolescence and extend throughout adult life. Although these studies provide a general overview of the diverse aspects of bullying in Brazil, they also show that there is a lack of intervention studies and a gap in research addressing bullying prevention and restorative practices and the impacts of intervention programs.
New York, Fev de Mental health action plan — Genebra, Integrating mental health into primary care: a global perspective. Genebra e Londres, Lopes Neto AA. In: Lopes Neto AA. Bullying : saber identificar e como prevenir. Berger KS.
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Update on bullying at school: Science forgotten? Dev Rev ; 27 1 Olweus D. Bullying at school. Long term outcomes for the victims end an effective school-Based Intervention program. In: Huesmann LR, editor. Agressive Behavior: Current Perpectives. San Francisco: Plenum Press; Antunes DC. Mas o que seria isso, o bullying? In: Antunes DC. Olweys D. A profile of bullying at school. In: Educational Leadership, March [acessado mar 19]; [cerca de 8p].
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Stop Bullying on the Spot
Campinas: Verus; The nature of school bullying : A cross-national perspective. London, New York: Routledge; Whitney I, Smith PK. Educ Res ; 35 1 Bullying: perceptions of adolescent victims in the Midwestern USA. Sch Psychol Int ; 13 1 Aggression in the schools: Bullies and whipping boys. Washington: Hemisphere Press Wiley ; Rio de Janeiro: Abrapia; Agressividade escolar. Kinesis Santa Maria ; Um estudo sobre bullying entre escolares do ensino fundamental. Psicol Reflex Crit ; 22 2 Massacre de Realengo. Spigliatti S. Texto Contexto Enferm ; 17 4 Whittemore R, Knafl K.
The integrative review: updated methodology. J Adv Nurs ; 52 5 Cien Saude Colet ; 15 Supl. Bullying and self-esteem in adolescents from public school. J Pediatr Rio J ; 89 6 Psicol Esc Educ ; 16 1 J Pediatr Rio J ; 87 1 Prevalence and characteristics of victims and perpetrators of bullying. J Pediatr Rio J ; 89 2 Smith PK. School Bullying. Bullying : comportamento agressivo entre estudantes.
Bullying in Schools: Can It Be Stopped?
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Estud Psicol ; 27 3 We need to know the specific behavior or what we call the "bully behavior. We have to do a better job of teaching what bully behavior looks like in our schools. The definition of a bully from one of the most effective Bully Prevention programs from Hazeldon Publishing, Olweus , states,. Most often, it is repeated over time. Here are five reasons educators, parents, students, and the media need to stop labeling all events with the generalized term, "Bully," and instead dig deeper and act on the behavior:.
Many times when a "bully" situation is labeled as such, education officials are already working from a deficient. We have to take time and teach what a bully behavior is and help delineate if this situation was truly "bully behavior. Most behavior can be categorized as the student wanting to either "obtain" or "avoid" something. This can come in the form of obtaining or avoiding another student, adult, task, activity, or even the intangible "attention.
By digging deeper we can set a plan for an individual student, a classroom, a grade level, or even for a whole school and community. We can create individual plans that combat the "bully behavior" and we are able to track the progress of these plans. With students who exhibit excessive bully behaviors we can set up an action plan using SMART goals: 1 specific, 2 measurable, 3 agreed upon, 4 realistic, and 5 time-based. Some school districts even create Response to Intervention plans for specific behavior of these students.
Click here to learn more about RtI Behavior Plans. Teaching parents, students, and staff members what bully behavior looks like and sounds like is the first step in combating it! We must be proactive and keep the dialogue going. We must spend time working on the verbiage we use as a staff not only with students, but with each other.
We work on the bully behaviors, define the specific behaviors exhibited, and we do not generalize the situation as "bullying. A staff meeting is a great place to bring up a scenario, find out how others would handle the situation, problem solve together, and create consistent and effective procedures in order to solve the problem. This is where common language and expectations are created. The staff then needs to hold each other accountable to these standards.
10 Ways to Help Reduce Bullying in Schools
When scenarios are discussed with students, they learn how they can handle it as a bystander or as the person experiencing the bully behavior. In addition, students learn what the staff is going to do to support school-wide positive behavior, as well as combating the bully behaviors exhibited in the scenarios. Keeping these discussions going supports the staff being proactive and more efficient when dealing with these behaviors. The Olweus program provides many such lessons that can be used by staff members.
Implementing a Bully Prevention Program is only one step in combating bully behavior. We must make bully prevention a school-wide focus, and keep it at the forefront. If a school district believes that these behaviors will be stopped by just implementing a program, they will not find success. I argue the culture of the school plays a larger role in bully prevention. We must examine how people treat each other: students to staff, staff to students, staff to parents, staff to community, and staff to staff. When we examine, set expectations, and hold each other accountable, the success rate for a positive learning environment, free of bully behavior, can be increased.
To learn more about how we can treat each other and the parents we have in our schools, read one of my past blogs by clicking here: " Degrees of Customer Service". Also, setting up a Power of Praise program can support a school-wide focus on a positive culture; to learn more about setting one up, click here: "8 Steps to Set Up a Power of Praise Program". To learn more how culture is important to a successful school, click here: "9 Reasons Culture Trumps Strategy". In one sense, as educators, media helps us realize bullying is an epidemic and that schools must focus on solution-based strategies to combat bully behaviors.
Bullying Needs To Stop
In another sense, the student who does the "bullying" gets the media hype and everyone wants to learn more. Unfortunately, our society feeds on negative-based news such as this outrageous behavior. We need to focus on the solution. How many of these news reports talk about not only what's already in place in schools, but what changes are going to be made afterwards?