Arrested and jailed, she hit rock bottom and was offered a chance to leave LA immediately or stay in the drug offenders Programme. Helped by a family member, she returned to England still unable to stop completely. Finally, she did get help and discover a recovery path which combined her buddhist faith and reassures her relationship with the step programme.
Crystal meth in England has been reported only on the gay club scene. Part of the reason Myers wrote this book is to warn young people of its dangers. This book could be well used as part of a schools drug education programme. Product details Format Paperback pages Dimensions x x 18mm Rating details.
Book ratings by Goodreads. Goodreads is the world's largest site for readers with over 50 million reviews. Antipsychotics such as haloperidol are useful in treating agitation and psychosis from methamphetamine overdose. Methamphetamine has been identified as a potent full agonist of trace amine-associated receptor 1 TAAR1 , a G protein-coupled receptor GPCR that regulates brain catecholamine systems. In addition to the plasma membrane monoamine transporters, methamphetamine inhibits uptake and induces efflux of neurotransmitters and other substrates at the vesicular monoamine transporters, VMAT1 and VMAT2.
Following oral administration, methamphetamine is well-absorbed into the bloodstream, with peak plasma methamphetamine concentrations achieved in approximately 3. The main metabolic pathways involve aromatic para-hydroxylation, aliphatic alpha- and beta-hydroxylation, N-oxidation, N-dealkylation, and deamination. Methamphetamine and amphetamine are often measured in urine or blood as part of a drug test for sports, employment, poisoning diagnostics, and forensics.
Methamphetamine is a chiral compound with two enantiomers, dextromethamphetamine and levomethamphetamine. At room temperature, the free base of methamphetamine is a clear and colorless liquid with an odor characteristic of geranium leaves. Bleach exposure time and concentration are correlated with destruction of methamphetamine.
Racemic methamphetamine may be prepared starting from phenylacetone by either the Leuckart  or reductive amination methods. During World War II, methamphetamine was sold in tablet form under the brand name Pervitin not to be confused with Perviton , which is a synonym for Phenatine , produced by the Berlin-based Temmler pharmaceutical company.
It was used extensively by all branches of the combined Wehrmacht armed forces of the Third Reich , and was popular with Luftwaffe pilots in particular, for its performance-enhancing stimulant effects and to induce extended wakefulness. Side effects were so serious that the army sharply cut back its usage in Suffering from a drug hangover and looking more like a zombie than a great warrior, he had to recover from the side effects.
Obetrol , patented by Obetrol Pharmaceuticals in the s and indicated for treatment of obesity , was one of the first brands of pharmaceutical methamphetamine products. The production, distribution, sale, and possession of methamphetamine is restricted or illegal in many jurisdictions. It has been suggested, based on animal research, that calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D , can provide significant protection against the DA- and 5-HT-depleting effects of neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the free base and salts of methamphetamine, a recreational drug. For other uses, see Meth disambiguation. US : C Risk not ruled out. IUPAC name. Interactive image. N C Cc1ccccc1 C C. See also: Party and play and the Recreational routes of methamphetamine administration.
Signaling cascade in the nucleus accumbens that results in psychostimulant addiction v t e. Note: colored text contains article links.
Nuclear pore. Nuclear membrane. Plasma membrane. Main article: Meth mouth. Metabolic pathways of methamphetamine in humans [sources 2]. Benzoic acid. Hippuric acid.
Methamphetamine synthesis. Method of methamphetamine synthesis of methamphetamine via reductive amination. Methods of methamphetamine synthesis via the Leuckart reaction.
Main article: History and culture of substituted amphetamines. Main article: Legal status of methamphetamine. Breaking Bad , a TV series centered on illicit methamphetamine synthesis Faces of Meth , a drug prevention project Methamphetamine in the United States Montana Meth Project , a Montana-based organization aiming to reduce meth use among teenagers Rolling meth lab , a transportable laboratory that is used to illegally produce methamphetamine Ya ba , Southeast Asian tablets containing a mixture of methamphetamine and caffeine.
Levomethamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine are also known as L-methamphetamine , R -methamphetamine , or levmetamfetamine International Nonproprietary Name [INN] and D-methamphetamine , S -methamphetamine , or metamfetamine INN , respectively. Text color Transcription factors. Methamphetamine, a central nervous system stimulant drug, is p-hydroxylated by CYP2D6 to less active p-OH-methamphetamine.
United States Food and Drug Administration. Shire US Inc. December Retrieved 30 December PubChem Compound. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Sudbury, Mass. Clinical Toxicology.
What's Your Poison?
Drug profiles. Retrieved 27 November University of Alberta. Retrieved 16 January Retrieved 1 January Pubchem Compound. April Topical nasal decongestants -- i For products containing levmetamfetamine identified in The product delivers in each milliliters of air 0. National Geographic Channel. August Unlike cocaine and amphetamine, methamphetamine is directly toxic to midbrain dopamine neurons. Behav Neurol. Brain Res.
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Neuroimaging studies have revealed that METH can indeed cause neurodegenerative changes in the brains of human addicts Aron and Paulus, ; Chang et al. These abnormalities include persistent decreases in the levels of dopamine transporters DAT in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the caudate-putamen McCann et al. The density of serotonin transporters 5-HTT is also decreased in the midbrain, caudate, putamen, hypothalamus, thalamus, the orbitofrontal, temporal, and cingulate cortices of METH-dependent individuals Sekine et al.
Neuropsychological studies have detected deficits in attention, working memory, and decision-making in chronic METH addicts There is compelling evidence that the negative neuropsychiatric consequences of METH abuse are due, at least in part, to drug-induced neuropathological changes in the brains of these METH-exposed individuals These include loss of gray matter in the cingulate, limbic and paralimbic cortices, significant shrinkage of hippocampi, and hypertrophy of white matter Thompson et al.
Elevated choline levels, which are indicative of increased cellular membrane synthesis and turnover are also evident in the frontal gray matter of METH abusers Ernst et al. Retrieved 6 January A critical review". Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencies 9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. Merck Manual for Health Care Professionals. Retrieved 8 May Neurologic Clinics. Drug Alcohol Rev. Glial modulators as potential treatments of psychostimulant abuse. Advances in Pharmacology.
Tweaking the Dream: A Crystal Meth True Story
Glia including astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes , which constitute the majority of cells in the brain, have many of the same receptors as neurons, secrete neurotransmitters and neurotrophic and neuroinflammatory factors, control clearance of neurotransmitters from synaptic clefts, and are intimately involved in synaptic plasticity. Despite their prevalence and spectrum of functions, appreciation of their potential general importance has been elusive since their identification in the mids, and only relatively recently have they been gaining their due respect.
Neuroimmune basis of methamphetamine toxicity.
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International Review of Neurobiology. Collectively, these pathological processes contribute to neurotoxicity e. Curr Neuropharmacol. They are present in the organs that mediate the actions of METH e. In the brain, METH acts primarily on the dopaminergic system to cause acute locomotor stimulant, subchronic sensitized, and neurotoxic effects. Behavioural Neurology. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Pharmacol Rep. Curr Drug Abuse Rev. Dialogues Clin. Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that, despite a range of genetic risks for addiction across the population, exposure to sufficiently high doses of a drug for long periods of time can transform someone who has relatively lower genetic loading into an addict.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Department of Neuroscience. Retrieved 9 February Substance-use disorder: A diagnostic term in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 referring to recurrent use of alcohol or other drugs that causes clinically and functionally significant impairment, such as health problems, disability, and failure to meet major responsibilities at work, school, or home. Depending on the level of severity, this disorder is classified as mild, moderate, or severe.
Addiction: A term used to indicate the most severe, chronic stage of substance-use disorder, in which there is a substantial loss of self-control, as indicated by compulsive drug taking despite the desire to stop taking the drug. In the DSM-5, the term addiction is synonymous with the classification of severe substance-use disorder.
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