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Augustin, Saint, [edited by R. From the Rev. Auntie Emily et al, The Prize for Girls and Boys , illustrated by Harrison Weir and others, children's illustrated chromolithographic colour plate scripture picture Victorian. Auping, Michael, Francesco Clemente. Austen, Jane and Chapman, R. Austen, Jane and Chapman. Chapman, Vol. Austen, Jane, Emma, [Pocket Classics]. Austen, Jane, Emma, fine binding, illustrated by Hugh Thomson. Austen, Jane, Emma, folio society. Austen, Jane, Mansfield Park. Austen, Jane, Persuasion, folio society. Austen, Jane, Pride and Prejudice. Austen, Jane, The Watsons.

Jan to Dec G Handbook Series]. Austrian Alpine Club, Collection of approx. Author Not Stated, Fishing Tackle. Author not stated, Murrays Handbook for Travellers in Greece. President Handbook Authors Not Listed, Victory Magazine, vol 2 no's 4, and 6, two issues. Etancelin 3rd, R. Auton, Clive A. Avi Noam, R. Awdry, Rev. Awdry, The Rev. Awsby, Edith, Three School Friends. Pugin [2 volumes]. Ayscough, John, On Kali's Shoulder. A brief notice of what befel at Katara, in the Deccan, to an officer of the 92nd Mahratta Cavalry.

Watkins Pitchford], Brendon Chase. Watkins Pitchford], The Wayfaring Tree. Chamberlain, Huit Siecles de Poesie Francaise. Baba, Japanese children's book 11 Cats in the Bag. Du 1er Janvier au 30 Juin Babington, Churchill, Lumby, Rev. Bach, J. Trevor, Francis Jackson. Bacon, Captain Alban F. Bacon, Charlotte, The Grays. Bacon, Francis and Wright, W. Bacon, Francis, Kitchin, G. Bacon, G. And Co. Baddeley, St. Clair, History of the Church of St. Mary, at Painswick. Baddeley, W. Baddeley, Welbore St.

Baden Powell, Lieut. Sir Robert, Aids to Scouting for N. Baden Powell, R. A Complete Account for Sportsmen; and Others. Baden Powell, Robert, 3 editions of 'Scouting for Boys' [contains the 29th Edition from , 34th Edition from and the 34th Edition reprint with revised Appendix from ]. Sir Robert Baden Powell. Baden Powell, Robert; Barclay, V. Francis and Neame, Majorie S. Baden Powell, Robert; Longfellow, W. Baden Powell, W. Badger, George Percy, An English Arabic Lexicon, in which the equivalents for English words and idiomatic sentences are rendered into literary and colloquial Arabic.

Badley, J. Baedeker, K. Handbuch for Reisende [ and editions]. Handbuch fur Reisende. Baedeker, Karl, Deutschland in Einem Bande , and [3 volumes]. Baedeker, Karl, Egypt, Handbook for Travellers. Baedeker, Karl, Egypt. Baedeker, Karl, Greece. Handbuch fur Reisende and [2 volumes]. Baedeker, Karl, Spain and Portugal. Handbook for Travellers [ Baedeker's Guide ]. Bagenal, Hope; Granger, Frank, et al. Anato mes Prof. Libri Duo. Accedunt Dissertationes Novae. In 2 volumes with a coloured sheet map of the county.

Bagshaw, Samuel, History, Gazetteer, and Directory of the County Palatine of Chester; Comprising a general survey of the county, with a variety of historical, statistical, topographical, commercial, and agricultural information. Bagshawe, L. Baigell, Matthew, Charles Burchfield. Bailey, Alice A.

Bailey, H. Bailey [contains 'This is Mr. Fortune' and 'Call Mr. Bailey [contains 'Mr. Bailey, N. Gordon, G. Bailey, Paul, At The Jerusalem. The Second Edition, Revised and Enlargened. Bailie, Molly [artist],. Baillie, J. Baker, Ernest A. Baker, Gulielma, A. Baker, H. Baker, J. Baker, L. Baker, Nicholson, The Fermata.

Baker, Richard St. Baker, Sir Samuel W. Baker, Thomas, History of the College of St. Baker, Thorne T. Baker, W. Baker, William, The Truck System. To The Inhabitants, and especially to the Electors of Derby. Balch, Herbert. Its Caves and Cave Dwellers. Baldry, A. Vocal Duets second selection. Ballantyne, R. II], Chasing the Sun [No. IV], Lost in the Forest [No. Ballard, J. Bandwagon Festival Souvenir Number. Banigan, Sharon, Hear Our Prayer.

Banister, R.

Murder investigation in Hale County

Banks, Mike; Kearns, William H. Bannerman, William, The Aberdeen Worthies: or, Sketches of Characters resident in Aberdeen during the end of the last and beginning of the present century, First and Second Series, [2 volumes in 1]. Barber, D. By Joseph Baretti. Barker, Cicely Mary, Fairies of the Trees. Barker, Cicely Mary, Groundsel and Necklaces. Barker, G. Russell and Stenning, Alan H.

Barker, H. Editor , East Suffolk, Illustrated. Barker, J. Ellis, Cancer, The Surgeon and the Researcher. Ellis, The Truth about Homoeopathy. Barker, K. Barker, Mrs. Cooper, Paul Hardy, F. Barlow, Jane, Irish Ways. Barnard, Alfred, Bass and Co. Barnard, Sir John, A Present for an Apprentice; from an affectionate and tender parent to his beloved son: or, a sure guide to gain both esteem and estate; with rules for his conduct to his master, and in the world. Barnes, C. Barnes, J. Barnes, Stanley; Irving, Commander J.

Burgess J. T; Blandford, P. Barrett, George S. Barrie, J M, George Meredith. Barrie, J. From The Little White Bird. Barron, Roderick, Decorative Maps. Barrow D. Barrow, J. Barrow, John, Junr. Barry, Dr. Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of her Majesty. Ichthyology Vol. I , The Perch Family. I Ornithology. Birds of Great Britain and Ireland part I birds of prey. Bart, W. Bartholdy, Felix Mendelssohn, "St. Bartholomew F. Bartholomew, J. Lower Hyde [3 maps]. Bartlett, W. Bartok, Bela, Mirokosmos Volumes 1 4, progressive piano pieces. Barton, D. Bartram, George, England's Garland, poetry modern first edition.

Barzel, Amnon, Gidon Graetz , Sculpture. Bastin, S. Leonard; Seymour, A. Batchelder, W. Batcheller, M. Batchelor, Rev. Bate, C. Spence and Westwood, J. Bateman, H M, Adventures at Golf. Bateman, J. To which are added, an Index and Notes. Bateman, Rev. Gregory C. Bates, H. Batholomew, J.

Batten, H. Batten, John D. Battiss, Walter W. The Art of the Yellow Man, 2. The Art of the Black Man, 3. The Art of the White Man. The Poems in Prose, with La Fanfarlo. Baudelaire, Charles, Fleures Du Mal. Baum, L. Frank, Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. Baumer, Lewis, Did You Ever? Baxandall, D. Mathematics I. Calculating Machines and Instruments. Bayne, A. Baynes, Rev. BB, Recollections of a 'Longshore Gunner. Beale, Lionel J. A Lost Genius. Beall, Johnston, Happy Hours. Beans, George H. Tiggy Winkle in French]. Beattie, James, An essay on the nature and immutability of truth, in opposition to sophistry and scepticism.

Beaumont, Cyril W. Beauvilliers, A. Beazley, J. Fascicule 1. Payne and E. Becker, Ernst, Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie. Beckett, Grace [compiled by], Songs of Joy. Beckett, Samuel, How it is [translated from French by the author]. Bedford, Donald A. Beeby, The Rev C. Beerbohm, Max, The Happy Hypocrite. Beethoven, L. Beeton, Isabella, All About Cookery. Beeton, Mrs. Begbie, Harold, Tables of Stone. Behan, Brendan, Borstall Boy. Beidleman, Richard G. Beirne, Bryan P. Lees Milne, 'Staffordshire's Wonderland' by R. Belidor, M. Bell, A.

Bell, Benjamin, A System of Surgery. Bell, Clive. In Two Volumes [2 volumes in 1]. Bell, Herbert C. Bell, J. Bell, John, Travels from St. Petersburgh in Russia to Various Parts of Asia. Illustrated with Maps. Cuming and Mr. Bellchambers, E [Editor], The Scripture Cabinet, comprehending the principle events recorded in the old and new testaments.

De Statu Libri Tres. Belloc, H.


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Belloc, Hilaire, The Old Road, signed. Belloc, Hilaire, The Pyrenees. Bemelmans, Ludwig, Madeline, Madeline in London [2 volumes]. Being further information relating to these factories, obtained from original documents, not hitherto published. Benchley, Robert, Ford, Corey, [edited by R.

Sherwood], Life Vol. Bengelii, J. Bennet D. The Thirty Nine Articles of Religion. To which is added St Jerom's Epistle to Nepotianus. Bennett, Alan, The History Boys. Bennett, Arnold, Buried Alive. Bennett, Colin N. Bennett, P. Bennett, Rev William J. A Series of Lecture Sermons [8 Sermons]. In Three Volumes, Vol. Benson, E. Bentham, G. And Hooker, J. Extracts from Comrie Church yard. A few extracts from Fife OPR.

Most of the genealogies are referred to as 'abbreviated'. Letter about proposed abandonment of the Mission at Manawatu in Dundas of that ilk. Copy of testament. Also copies of vital registers in the USA including Wisconsin. Mentions of many of the families who married into the Edwards family. Includes details from family bible. Extract from Scotland's Magazine, , -'The Elliots'. Elliot Clan Soc newsletter, no. Adam Ellison m. Marion daughter of William Gordon of Airds.

Another tree of the family of Pettendreich. Copies certificates of employment, birth and army. Letter dated from solicitor in Canada trying to find out if Janet Esson had died. Large family tree. Letter tracing history of Farquharsons with family tree. Extract from Gentleman's Mag. Also mentioned ADAM. America, Dallas, Texas, and many other places. Large family tree anent the name. Ferguson, - about pages. Family emigrated to Australia c. Photocopy of 'Origin of the Fergusons in Western Australia'. Findlays of Heathfield Farm, and Coltfield. ELG, Ancestors and family of James Finlayson founder of Finland's industrial revolution, - extract from a Magazine dated February Photocopies concerning Robert Fleming, died Copies of letters from Extracts from the Oban Times anent Fletchers.

Copy of affidavit Miscellaneous notes and rough family trees. Family in Aberdeen. Although these are the surnames mentioned in the title of the work the index contains references to a great number of other surnames. Extracts from OPR, Statutory records and census. Family group sheet. Several little trees. Information on the lowland Clan Society of the name. Forsyth in America via Ireland. Material on floppy disc too. Introduction to 'Foulis Book'?. Mainly relating to the family in Colinton. Some entries from Aberdeen OPR. Frasers of Findrack, ABD..

Memoranda anent Lord Fraser, c. Many sheets of notes and letters about general clan history. Information showing descent from John Gardiner and Janet Hartridge, married Spriggs, with family tree. Extracts from OPR and Statutory records. This collection covers several families of the name.

Much correspondence with Ingaborg Gifford, Edinburgh from the s. Many scraps of information about the name. Family group sheets. An early and rather hard to follow pedigree chart, showing the ancestry of Daniel Gilchrist, c. Contains bibliography and references. Extracts from various vital records in the USA. Girdwood from Scotland and Canada, , with extracts from journals and newspaper.

Relating SA. Detailed research on the families mentioned. Gordon of Symington, Keirshill, Glasgow, Kenmure. A lso a pedigree of the Gordons of Lesmoir, Gordons of Culraven and Kenmure mentioned. House of Gordon Newsletter for and Maclagan Gorrie, Notes from a Latin bible anent the family of Meathie. Tree of the family descending from Andrew Gray, farmer Walk of Gray, c.

One sheet on the descendants of William Gray and Agnes Carnegie married Another tree of a family of Inverkeithing. Two family trees.

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Extract from 'Chief of Gunn', and magazine article on name. Notes on Mount House with notes on the Guthrie family Extract from Inventory of John Haigh Wickenden, Very general information on the family. Also mentioned BURT. I, no. Mainly about the Hartwell family in the USA. A tree relating to the family of Robert Harvey, portrait painter. Large annotated family group photograph. Correspondence about Hays in Denmark with extracts from books anent 'Catherine Christine'. Hedderwick, , 32 pages.

Hand written copy of 'History of the Anchor Line, Two pages from a colour supplement with photos of the Earl of Bothwell's body as it is today in a church in Denmark. Also a copy of 'Runar', George Hill of St. Collection of family trees mainly concerned with MLN - Stow, Leadervale, Fireburnmill, but with smaller trees on families of the name in different places.

All 6 documents c. MI extracts. Refers to two or three different families. A tree of an East Lothian family. Howard, Victoria, A pedigree chart of similar date showing the ancestry of two cousin whom married. With other scraps and notes. Main families mentioned: PYLE,c. In Fraserburgh and New Blyth Innes in Longside and also Cathlaw. Booklet of facsimile documents detailing the family of Innes of Barnyards, Peterhead. Fergus Descendants of William Innes in Cumminestown. Tree showing the Royal ancestors of the Misses Innes of Inverness, Family in Ancroach. Various notes. Various letters.

Tracing Sewdish connections. Birth brief of Lt. Irving Stockholm. Baron of Tullock, Councillor of the King of Scotland. Pedigree sheets. A collection of family group sheets with index. Mainly OPR and census. Also mentioned Cousin, Paterson, Halbeath, Beveridge. Also mentioned Comb, Johnston. Large collection of material. Also in USA, Tasmania. MacRAE 2. HAY 1. SCOTT 2. Various lineages, bound book. Dutch heraldry and family history worldwide. Also mentioned BEG. Church records.

Trees relating to the Earl Marischal Family. From Burke's peerage. Photograph of House. Tree of Kerr of Lochtoun. Portioner of Kilwinning. Census material and Edinburgh Directories. Various lists from libraries.

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USA Early history of the name. Research papers. Supporters of Bonnie Prince Charlie, later prisoner. Sailed to America. Some material anent a doctor in the Indian medical service. Relates to Nathaniel Kinnaird. English history Also mentioned: GRAY. Enquirer - Harold Kirkpatrick. Births and marriages. Also mentioned: REID. Fort Alexander Walker Connections and pedigree chart. Births and Marriages, census notes. Various notes on Landale Family. Part of a Landale family tree. Extracts of parish of Selkirk. Copy of information in pocket bibles. Also mentioned: KERR. Will - relict of Barbara Scott d.

Extract of birth Biography of Rev. Hugh Alexander Lawson MA Descendant of Rob Roy McGregor proven. Alphabetical list of monumental inscriptions and family trees. Copy of letter from Professor Gordon Donaldson to Moscow. Line of the Leask Chiefs. Register of contributors working on Island families. Printed family tree. Various research notes. Origin of surname where they all live etc. C Booklet, by Rev. Campbell Ferenbach. Annals of Liberton - members interest enquiry.

William Lillie. Booklets by Dr. Notes on a reproduction map of Banff. Tree of the family of Lindsay of Byres. The Livingstone Family Tree printed Also references to David Livingstone the explorer. Map of Corhouse nature reserve. Notes on family pedigrees. MI for Stewarton Old Burying ground. Also mentioned: BELL. Research done in USA. Alias Wm. Notes on 'An Auchendoir Album' Description of contents. House of Lumsden Association. Arms of Lumsden on book shelf. Various notes on BMD. Extracts from census. Also mentioned: LYLE. Notes on the family of Carsphairn and another in Stilingshire.

Photograph of the arms of Arthur James McAdam. Various other scraps of unconnected trees. Mentions Honduras. Several surgeons mentioned. Extract from IGI. Early version of Barmagachan history. OPR index printouts. Also showing links to the Campbell family. Cowan, published by Scarborough Historical Societies.

Large body of correspondence between Lesley Gordon of Cowdencleuch and W. LOVE 2. MANN 2. ROSS 4. Extracts from OPR, census and statutory records. Photographs of tombstones. Correspondence dealing with Canadian and American members of the family. Notes on Donald Bhaine McDougald. Copy of descendants of Alexander MacDougal, c. Nomenclature of the Macfie Society and other information about the society. Also mentioned KERR. Photocopy of a family record going back to Tree anent a family in Northern Ireland. Several small trees referring mainly to the south-west of Scotland, also Canada.

PER, ? Copy Clan Gregor Society, no. Letters anent Register of members' interests. Mentions of the family of Corsemalzie. Another collection of seven family trees anent the name, with families in Manchester, America and Ayrshire. Including a collection of 10 trees of the family in Ayrshire. Clan Angus journal no.

Government Presidents: James A. Garfield , 20th President of the U. Science Charles Darwin sails on the H. Beagle, a trip on which he conceives the idea of evolution. Science Michael Farraday develops the electromagnetic generator. Inventions An early version of the mechanical reaper is developed by Cyrus McCormick Technology Airplanes: Thomas Walker proposes a tandem-wing airoplane with the pilot and the propulsion system amidships.

This would later influence Samuel Langley as he designed his aerodromes. Miller Stewart , an African American orator, exhorts African Americans to become educated and fight for their rights; she speaks out at a time when very few women are able to speak in public. Hayes — , is born August 28 in Chillicothe, Ohio. Economics Transportation: Railroad History: The 3. Economics Transportation: The Canadian paddle steamer, Royal William, cross the Atlantic with steam as the prime source of drift. However, her engines had to be stopped every few days because they had to be scraped from the accumulated salt deposits from the seawater used in her boilers.

Sports Horse Racing: A popular racing sheet, the "Spirit of the Times," is established by William Trotter; its aim is to improve the reputation of racing and other sports. Social Issues Immigration: German immigration to the U. Social Issues Slavery: Nat Turner leads an unsuccessful slave uprising. Social Issues Slavery: The term "underground railroad" becomes widely used. Politics Third Parties: For the first time in American history, a third party challenges the major two parties.

William Wirt — of the Anti-Masonic Party carries 8 percent of the vote and one state. Government John C. Calhoun becomes the first Vice President to resign from office; he runs successfully for the Senate. Government States in the South begin a series of nullification acts, attempting to redefine their relationship to the federal government. War Indian Wars: U. Medicine The dissection of cadavers in medical schools is legalized in Massachusetts. Inventions Cyrus McCormick invents the first commercially successful reaper. Arts and Letters The Boston Academy of Music offers free music lessons to children, adults, and teachers.

Garfield — , is born on April 19 in Hiram, Ohio. Economics Transportation: Railroad History: "The Brother Jonathon" was the first locomotive in the world to have a four-wheel leading truck; it was designed by John B. Reform The first work to treat women in a completely distinctive way, "The History of Women," is published. Government Congress gives President Jackson the power to use the armed forces to enforce the tariff laws; South Carolina rescinds its nullification acts after a compromise on tariffs is reached.

Science Michael Farraday coins the terms electrolysis, electrolyte, anode, and cathode. Goodrich Royal William crosses the Atlantic in 25 days. Daily Life Newspapers: The first "penny press," the "New York Sun," makes newspapers widely available, thus helping the spread of literacy. This is a twice-monthly magazine, founded by Samuel Griswold Goodrich It emphasized geography, travel, natural history, and simple technology, along with Bible stories.

Sports Baseball: An early form of baseball is played by the Olympic Ball Club in Philadelphia; most rules are like those of English cricket. David Crockett, of West Tennessee. Reform Labor Movement: Shoemakers in Geneva, New York, go on strike; they win, but a later court case declares strikes to be illegal. Government Andrew Jackson removes federal deposits from the Bank of the U. Senate censures Andrew Jackson for taking federal deposits from the Bank of the U. Science Amalgam a mercury alloy is introduced as a filling material for decayed teeth.

Medicine An antidote for arsenic poisoning is discovered by Robert Bunsen Inventions The mechanical reaper is patented by Cyrus H. McCormick Inventions Computers: Charles Babbage invents the principle of the "analytical engine," which is the forerunner of the computer.

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Inventions Jacob Perkins invents an early refrigerator really an early ice machine. Education Special Education: French teacher Louis Braille invents a system of printed raised dots that enables the blind to read. Lincoln, Mary Abraham Lincoln enters politics in the Illinois legislature at the age of Economics Twenty-eight million acres of public land are offered for sale to those who wish to move west.

Daily Life Tomatoes are begun to be eaten in the U. Sports Baseball: The first printed rules for a game much like baseball are found in the Book of Sports. Sports Women in Sports: The first modern Lacrosse games are played. Lacrosse will become a major new sports opportunity for women in the 's with many colleges offering scholarship dollars. The original game was played by North American Indians. Popular Culture Madame Tussaud opens her wax museum in London. Reform Labor Movement: The Factory Girls Association is organized in the Lowell textile mills; women workers stage their first strike, which fails.

Inventions Computers: Charles Babbage invents a mechanical calculator. Education Education of Women: Harriet Hunt c. Education Education of Women: Education for girls is established in Panama. Ideas Alexis de Tocqueville publishes his "Democracy in America," a work that is still quoted today. Economics Transportation: Railroad History: 1, miles of railroad tracks are in use in the U. Popular Culture P.

Barnum begins his career as a showman in the U. Reform Prison Reform: Mt. Reform Abolition Movement: Censorship efforts in Southern states expel abolitionists and forbid the mailing of antislavery propaganda. Reform Abolition Movement: Pro- and anti-slavery mobs clash in Charleston, South Carolina, in Boston, and in New York; in Boston, the pro-slavery attackers take William Lloyd Garrison and parade him through the streets with a rope around his neck. He is confirmed by the Senate in and serves for twenty-eight years, the second-longest tenure of any Chief Justice.

Politics Martin Van Buren is elected as the 8th U. President and Richard M. Johnson is elected as the nation's 9th Vice President. War Mexican Wars: The battle of the Alamo takes placeover 13 days; less than defenders are finally defeated by 2, Mexican soldiers. Science Pepsin, the powerful ferment in gastric juice, is recognized by the German physiologist, Theodor Schwann Education Public Education: Child labor laws in Massachusetts require children to attend school for at least three months a year until they are Education Special Education: Laura Bridgman becomes the first deaf-mute taught to communicate at the Perkins Institute.

Ideas The first meeting of the Transcendentalist Club is held in Boston. Fillmore, Abigail Millard Fillmore is elected again as a Representative to Congress; serves until Madison, Dolley James Madison dies at the Madisons' home at Montpelier, and is buried there. Pierce, Jane Franklin Pierce Jr. Economics American Money: With minimum regulation, a proliferation of 1, local state-chartered, private banks now issue paper money. Social Issues Slavery: Texas wins independence from Mexico and legalizes slavery.

Free blacks and mulattos are forbidden from entering the state. Reform Abolition Movement: There are active abolitionist societies in the North. Reform Labor Movement: At age 11, mill worker Harriet Jane Hanson Robinson leads her young co-workers out in support of older workers striking in protest over wage cuts.

Government President Andrew Jackson recognizes the Republic of Texas on his last day in office, thereby preventing its admission as a slave territory. Government Martin Van Buren is inaugurated as the 8th U. Johnson is inaugurated as the nation's 9th Vice President. Science French mathematician Simeon Denis Poissson develops the rules of probability by studying the incidence of death from mule kicks in the French army. Inventions English schoolmaster, Rowland Hill invents the postage stamp. Edmund Dwight , a major industrialist, thinks a state board of education was so important to factory owners that he offered to supplement the state salary with extra money of his own.

Education Freidrich Froebel establishes the first kindergarten in Germany. Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts, one of the first colleges for women. Economics The economic Panic of is felt across the nation. Many people are out of work. She is the first monarch to live in Buckingham Palace. Sports Women in Sports: Donald Walker's book, "Exercise for Ladies," warns women against horseback riding, because it deforms the lower part of the body. Government Slavery: John Calhoun , Senator from South Carolina, introduces resolutions in the Senate affirming the legality of slavery.

Science The idea that cells are the basic building blocks of all living things is advanced. Spencer Technology Samuel Morse gives the first demonstration of the telegraph. Education French philosopher Auguste Comte gives the discipline of sociology its name. Arts and Letters Literature: Author James Fenimore Cooper publishes two novels criticizing American democracy; he is roundly criticized. Economics Transportation: The British liner Great Western sails from England on her maiden voyage; she is the first to cross the Atlantic regularly.

Economics Transportation: The British steamship Sirius crosses the Atlantic solely on steam power in 18 days, 10 hours. Daily Life The coronation of Queen Victoria takes place a year after she ascends the throne. Social Issues Native Americans: Fifteen thousand Cherokee Indians remaining in Georgia are moved by federal troops miles westward in what becomes known as "the Trail of Tears.

Reform Women's Suffrage: Widows with school-age children are allowed to vote in school board elections in Kentucky. He loses. Government The kingdom of Belgium is recognized by all countries of Europe. Inventions The first bicycle is constructed by Scottish inventor Kirkpatrick Macmillan Technology Louis Daguerre takes the first photograph of the moon. Technology Telegraph inventor Samuel F. Morse makes the first daguerreotype portraits to be produced in the U. Education The Lowell Institute in Boston is founded to provide free lectures by eminent scholars.

Education Teacher Education: The first public normal school teachers' college is founded in Lexington, Massachusetts. Madison, Dolley Dolley Madison moves back to Montpelier to try farming. Ninian , in Springfield, Illinois; she meets Abraham Lincoln there at a dance. Tyler, Julia Julia Gardner Tyler is the first President's wife to pose for a department store advertisement.

Economics The manufacture of rubber is pioneered by Charles Goodyear Daily Life Magazines: The Lowell mill girls begin publishing "The Lowell Offering," a monthly magazine of poetry, fiction, and essays that becomes internationally known. Sports Baseball: Abner Doubleday lays out the first baseball field and the first game is played. Government Stamps: The first postage stamps appear in Britain, bearing Queen Victoria's profile. Brazil is the second nation to have postage stamps. Science Louis Agassiz publishes a work on the movements and effects of glaciers.

Science James Joule develops the idea that energy can be converted from one state to another, but cannot be destroyed. Education Public Education: Irish Catholics in New York City struggle for local neighborhood control of schools as a way of preventing their children from being force-fed a Protestant curriculum. Mary-of-the-Woods College is founded in Indiana as the first of many women's institutions that are established by Catholic Sisters and is chartered in Ideas Margaret Fuller becomes editor of "The Dial," an influential transcentalist publication.

Adams, Abigail "Selected letters" by Abigail Adams on social, political, and other matters are published. Economics Transportation: The Cunard steamship line is established, the first with scheduled transatlantic sailings. Economics Population: The sixth national census shows a population of more than 17 million; , immigrants have arrived since , , from Ireland.

Collections curated by Keoghs Books

Daily Life History of Toys: The first American dollmaker is granted a patent and dolls begin to be mass-produced in America for the first time. Sports The game of bowling called nine pins becomes popular in the U. Popular Culture The expression, "O. Social Issues Native Americans: An increasing flow of emigrants to Oregon and California bring cholera, smallpox, and measles to the Indians as well as accelerated buffalo hunting for the fur trade.

Social Issues Immigration: Over a million Irish immigrants arrive in the United States, driven out of their homes in Ireland by the potato famine. Reform Labor Movement: The hour day is established for federal employees by a Presidential order. Law Slavery: Affirming a strong argument made by John Quincy Adams , the Supreme Court rules that the slaves who took over the Amistad may be freed. Thirty-five freed men return to Africa. Their efforts are thwarted by Governor Manuel Armijo Medicine James Braid , Scottish surgeon, investigates the use of hypnosis.

Education Education of Women: Oberlin College in Ohio is the first to grant college degrees to women. Education New England transcendentalists found the commune and school, Brook Farm. His Masterman Ready, or the Wreck of the Pacific, first published in three volumes in Harrison, Anna Anna Symmes Harrison is the first President's wife to never get to see or live in the White House because her husband, William Henry Harrison, died before she could join him there.

President Harrison delivered the longest inaugural address minutes on a very cold winter day and contracted pneumonia. Social Issues Slavery: Slaves aboard the U. Creole take over the ship and sail it to Nassau, where they become free. Social Issues Slavery: Texas gives its citizens the right and responsibility to apprehend runaway slaves and turn them over to the law so that they may be returned to their owners or sold at auction.

Government American author Washington Irving is appointed ambassador to Spain. Medicine The first surgery using an anesthetic—ether—is performed by Dr. Crawford Long of Georgia. Ideas Ralph Waldo Emerson becomes editor of "The Dial," an influential transcendentalist publication. She is the first First Lady to die during her husband's presidency. Hunt, rules that trade union are not illegal, the striking for a closed shop is legal, and that unions cannot be held responsible for illegal actions by individuals.

Inventions A U. Ideas Soren Kierkegaard lays the foundations for existentialism by stressing the primacy of the individualand the inevitability of suffering. Daily Life Fashion: A new form of female dress--bloomers--is introduced by Amelia Bloomer - Ives in Salem, Massachusetts. It becomes the first board game sold in the United States. Religion Sojourner Truth becomes a traveling evangelical preacher.

Reform Mental Health Movement: Dorothea Dix pushes reforms in the way mental health patients are treated through the Massachusetts legislature. Government The first treaty of peace, amity, and commerce is signed by the U. War A gun on the new frigate Princeton, being demonstrated by the U. Navy, explodes, killing the Secretaries of State and the Navy, as well as other government officials.

Technology Charles Goodyear receives a patent for rubber vulcanization. Technology Samuel F. Madison, Dolley Dolley Madison sells Montpelier and is the first First Lady to be granted a permanent seat on the floor of the House of Representatives. Lincoln, Mary Mary Todd and Abraham Lincoln buy a home from the Episcopal minister who had married them. This will prove to be the only home the couple ever own. Tyler, Julia Julia Gardner is the first woman to marry an American President while he was in office. Sports Cricket: The first official international cricket match is played: Canada vs.

United States. Religion Brigham Young is chosen to replace Joseph Smith as leader of the Mormons. Senate overrides a presidential veto for the first time. Government Congress establishes the first week in November for election day; the harvest is over but the roads are still passable.

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Technology Airplanes: William Samuel Henson and John Stringfellow attempt to form the Aerial Transit Company, which if only they had a practical airplane , would have been the world's first airline. To drum up support, they build and test a model of Henson's aerial carriage with a foot wingspan. It makes brief glides, but does not sustain flight. Education The first written examinations in elementary schools begin in Boston. Naval Academy opens at Annapolis, MD. Ideas Margaret Fuller publishes Women in the Nineteenth Century, an expansion of her earlier essay calling for equality for women.

Polk, Sarah Sarah Childress Polk is the first First Lady to be "selected" by the previous President for her position President Tyler told newly elected James Polk that he needed to get married and should marry Sarah. As a result of this selection, Sarah is the first First Lady to serve as her husband's personal secretary. Hayes, Lucy Lucy Webb attends classes at Ohio Wesleyan and receives some credits from the College, although female students are not officially enrolled there.

Economics Power looms for weaving carpets and tapestries are built by Erastus Bigelow This is a book of religious advice on behavior in the family, written as from one teenage girl to another. Social Issues Immigration: The potato crop fails in Europe, hitting Ireland especially hard; Irish immigrants continue to flock to the U. War Mexican War: The U. William Morton , a Massachusetts dentist, is the first to use anesthesia for tooth extraction.

Inventions Elias Howe receives a patent for his sewing machine. House of Representatives. Religion The American Missionary Association is founded, combining Protestant evangelicalism with abolitionism.


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Americans then wrestle with a controversial topic: Should slavery be permitted in the new lands? Reform Capital Punishment: Michigan becomes the first state to outlaw capital punishment. Government Liberia, colonized by American ex-slaves, becomes the first independent republic in Africa. Government Stamps: United States stamps debut. The first two feature George Washington and Ben Franklin Science Maria Mitchell discovers a new comet which is named after her. Science Joseph Leidy suggests that the environment affects changes evolution within a species.

Medicine Childbirth assisted by anesthetic chloroform first takes place. Medicine Antiseptics are developed by Ignaz Semmelweis , a Hungarian. Inventions The ophthalmoscope is invented by Charles Babbage Fillmore, Abigail The Fillmore family moves to Albany when Fillmore is elected state comptroller; the children are away at boarding school and college. Daily Life Newspapers: The telegraph is used to transfer stories over great distances, thus making news more immediate.

Social Issues Immigration: Irish immigration reaches ,, 3 times more than the year before. Reform Abolition Movement: Frederick Douglass , escaped ex-slave, begins publishing his abolitionist newspaper, the North Star. Politics Zachary Taylor is elected 12th President of the U. He wins 10 percent of the popular vote, and is credited with siphoning off enough votes from Democratic candidate Lewis Cass to help Whig candidate Zachary Taylor win the election. Science Maria Mitchell becomes the first woman to be elected a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Inventions Margaret Mattie Knight 10 invents a stop-motion device to keep shuttles from sliding out of the looms and injuring workers. Inventions Chewing gum is invented by John B. Curtis — of Maine. Education Public Education: Massachusetts Reform School at Westboro opens, where children who have refused to attend public schools are sent.

This begins a long tradition of "reform schools," which combine the education and juvenile justice systems. It also guarantees the continued use of the Spanish language, including in education. One hundred fifty years later, in , California breaks that treaty, by passing Proposition , which would make it illegal for teachers to speak Spanish in public schools.

Education Libraries: Boston Public Library becomes the first publicly supported major urban library. Education Education of Women: A medical school for women opens with 12 students in Boston. She refused to ever have it made. Hayes for the first time when he is visiting her town with his mother. She begins college at the Cincinnati Wesleyan Female College this year as well. Economics Gold is first discovered in California, in Sutter's mill. After President Polk announces the news in December, the gold rush begins soon after. Daily Life Niagara Falls stops flowing for the first time in history because of an ice jam in the Niagara River.

Government Zachary Taylor is inaugurated as the 12th President of the U. Government Thomas Ewing of Ohio is appointed as the first Secretary of the Interior, a department created to meet the needs of western settlers. Science Jeffries Wyman describes the similarities between the skeletons of apes and humans. Medicine Women's Firsts: Female doctors are permitted to practice medicine for the first time in the U. Inventions Mary Ann Woodward patents a fan that attaches to a rocking chair. Technology Airplanes: Sir George Cayley , builds a small glider designed to lift about 80 pounds of the ground.

He refers to it as his Boy Glider. It is the first recorded manned or boyed fixed-wing aircraft. It lifts a year old boy off the ground for a few yards on test runs. Cayley also flew it in a high wind like a kite, tethered to the ground. Madison, Dolley Dolley Madison dies on July 12 at the age of Polk, Sarah James K. Polk is the first President to be photographed while in office; he dies on June 15 in Nashville, Tennessee.

Lincoln, Mary Abraham Lincoln applies for a patent on a floating dry dock; he is the only U. President to do so. Economics Women''s Rights Movement: Amelia Bloomer - begins publishing "The Lily," moving it to Ohio in and employing female typesetters in spite of a strike by males on the staff. Sports The Pearl of Bermuda beats the U.

Social Issues Slavery: California holds a convention, adopting a constitution that forbids slavery and requests admission to the Union. Government Slavery: The Compromise of is passed after bitter debates about slavery in new territories and states. No new Vice President is selected. Government New Mexico which included present day Arizona, southern Colorado, southern Utah, and southern Nevada is designated a territory, but denied statehood.

Inventions The continuous stitch sewing machine is invented by Isaac Singer Technology Newspapers: Powerful, giant presses appear, and they are able to print ten thousand complete papers per hour. Technology The first clear photograph of the moon is made a daguerreotype.

Fillmore, Abigail The first library in the White House is established by Abigail Fillmore ; She used her furniture money to buy the books. In addition to the library, she also had the first White House bathtub installed and replaced the fireplace used for cooking with the first White House cookstove. Economics Population: The population of the U. Daily Life Fashion: Crinolines become popular in the U. Daily Life Newspapers: The first "pictorial" weekly newspapers emerge; for the first time they feature extensive illustrations of news events.

Barnum brings Jenny Lind to sing in the U. Social Issues Slavery: The Compromise of includes the Fugitive Slave Act, a law designed to assist in the recovery of runaway slaves by increasing federal officers and denying fugitive slaves a right to a jury trial. Reform Abolition Movement: Harriet Tubman c.

She makes 19 trips back to the South to free about slaves. Medicine Elizabeth Blackwell sets up a small medical clinic in a New York City tenement district. Medicine The use of glass eyes is introduced; many think they will restore sight. Education Libraries: The first law allowing towns to support free libraries through taxes is passed in Massachusetts. Education Libraries: Fire at the Library of Congress burns two-thirds of its collection, of which have still to be replaced. Education Public Education: State of Massachusetts passes its first compulsory education law.

The goal is to make sure that the children of poor immigrants get "civilized" and learn obedience and restraint, so they make good workers and don't contribute to social upheaval. Hayes, Lucy Rutherford B. Hayes asks Lucy Webb to marry him; she accepts. Daily Life The first double-decker omnibus, drawn by horses, appears in England. Sports Baseball: The first baseball uniforms are worn by the New York Knickerbockers—straw hats, white shirts, and blue trousers.

Although the book presents both African-American and white characters through melodrama and stereotype, the novel has received increasing critical reappraisal in recent years. Reform Native Americans: Bishop Jean Baptiste Lamy arrives in New Mexico and establishes schools, hospitals and orphanages throughout the territory. After 40 more installments, it is published as a book in King is elected as the 13th Vice President. The Whig party ceases to be a power. Government Stamps: The first pre-stamped envelopes are sold. Pre-stamped postcards for a penny appear 19 years later.

Medicine A Dutch army surgeon creates the first cast for broken bones by injecting bandages with plaster. Inventions Elisha Gray invents a safety device to prevent the fall of heavy machinery; his invention makes the development of the elevator possible. Education The first effective school attendance law is passed in Massachusetts; it requires at least 12 weeks attendance for all children between 8 and 14, six of which must be consecutive.

Congress adjourns to attend her funeral, the first time this honor is conferred upon a woman. John''s life choices, made him a charlatan and constant disgrace to his parents. Hayes are married on December 30 in Cincinnati. Johnson, Eliza Andrew Johnson Jr. Daily Life The U. Sports The first intercollegiate rowing race is held between Harvard and Yale. Social Issues Immigration: Chinese immigration is encouraged in California, particularly to provide labor for building railroads. Reform Labor Movement: Ohio becomes the first state to regulate working hours for women.

Government With the Gadsden Treaty, the U. Government Franklin Pierce is inaugurated as the 14th President of the U. King is inaugurated as the 13th Vice President. King dies soon after taking office, and is not replaced. Medicine Alexander Wood uses hypodermic syringes for injections under the skin. Medicine Chloroform is used by Queen Victoria as an anesthetic in the birth of her 7th child; it becomes an accepted practice in England. Medicine Epidemics: More than 3, perish from yellow fever in New Orleans. Inventions African American inventors: George Crum invents the potato chip.

Technology Airplanes: The first heavier-than-air flying machine, a glider, flies across a valley for yards carrying its frightened creator, George Cayley She begins teaching. Pierce, Jane Benjamin Pierce , son of Franklin and Jane Pierce, dies tragically January 16 in a train accident before his parents' eyes. Economics American Money: Three-dollar gold pieces are authorized by Congress. Religion Women's Firsts: Antoinette Brown Blackwell becomes the first ordained minister of a recognized denomination, the Congregationalists.

Government Clara Barton becomes perhaps the first regularly appointed woman civil servant in the U. Medicine Florence Nightingale introduces nurses and standards of cleanliness into military hospitals in the Crimea. Inventions The first form of the electric light bulb is invented by Heinrich Goebel in Germany. Education Special Education: The first state-supported school especially designed for the mentally retarded opens in Syracuse, NY.

Hayes, Lucy Lucy and Rutherford Hayes and their family move into its own house in Cincinnati. Economics Transportation: Railroad History: Immigration: 13, Chinese arrive, the beginning of large-scale Chinese immigration; they are employed largely in railroad building in the west. Social Issues Slavery: During the Kansas-Nebraska Act, Congress sets aside the rulings from the Missouri Compromise of and allows these two new territories to choose whether or not to allow slavery.

Violent clashes erupt. Reform Abolition Movement: Northern resistance to the expansion of slavery increases. Inventions The first patent for the production of rayon is obtained by George Audemars. Education A professorship of technology is created at Edinburgh University. Lincoln, Mary Abraham Lincoln runs unsuccessfully for the Senate. Sports Horseback riding by women becomes popular; many riding academies are set up to help women learn. Social Issues Slavery: Fugitive slave Ann Wood leads a wagon load of armed boys and girls in a shootout with slave catchers; two are killed and the rest escape to the North.

Breckenridge is elected as the nation's 14th Vice President. Science A Neanderthal skull is found in a cave near Dusseldorf in Germany. Inventions Henry Bessemer invents a process which makes it possible to mass-produce low-cost steel. Inventions A patent for a pencil with an attached eraser is granted to H.

Inventions Louis Pasteur invents the process of pasteurisation. Arts and Letters American Theatre: The first American copyright law is established because of the efforts of Dion Boucicault In its earliest form, it only protects the title of the play. Sports Boxing: The longest bare-knuckle boxing match in history pits James Kelly vs. Jack Smith in Melbourne, Australia; the fight lasts 6 hours and 15 minutes. Law Slavery: In the Dred Scott decision, the Supreme Court rules that slaves are not free just because they live in a free state, that blacks do not have the right to sue in federal court, and that Congress does not have the right to try to exclude slavery from the territories.

Government National Capital: The House of Representatives moves into its current home in the south wing of the Capitol. Government Stamps: Perforated U. Government James Buchanan is inaugurated as the 15th President of the U. Breckenridge is inaugurated as the nation's 14th Vice President. Science Louis Pasteur proves that fermentation is caused by living organisms. Science In a letter to Asa Gray , Charles Darwin first outlines his theories of evolution and natural selection.

Medicine Epidemics: One of the worst epidemics of influenza begins this year and spreads around the world in the next two years. This "artificial bird" makes one short glide, but on the second glide it crashes and Le Bris breaks his leg. Education The National Education Association is founded in Philadelphia for the purpose of advancing the professionalism of teaching. Hayes, Lucy Lucy Hayes takes great pleasure in her new sewing machine, a gift from her mother.