Get it by Tuesday, Jul 02 Only 4 left in stock. L'octobre French Edition Jan Les vacances se corsent Le furet enquete French Edition Jan Voyage en gourmandises French Edition May Only 1 left in stock. Cinq femmes chinoises Folio t. Get it by Wednesday, Jul 03 Only 3 left in stock more on the way.
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Excavations in north of the Church of Saint-Pierre found coins from the 3rd century and the remains of a major wall. Earlier excavations in the 17th century at the Fontaine-du-But 2 rue Pierre-Dac found vestiges of Roman baths from the 2nd century. The butte owes its particular religious importance to the text entitled Miracles of Saint-Denis , written before by Hilduin, abbot of the monastery of Saint-Denis, which recounted how Saint Denis , a Christian bishop, was decapitated on the hilltop in AD on orders of the Roman prefect Fescennius Sisinius for preaching the Christian faith to the Gallo-Roman inhabitants of Lutetia.
According to Hilduin, Denis collected his head and carried it as far as the fontaine Saint-Denis on modern impasse Girandon , then descended the north slope of the hill, where he died.
Hilduin wrote that a church had been built "in the place formerly called Mont de Mars, and then, by a happy change, 'Mont des Martyrs'. In , king Louis VI purchased the Merovingian chapel and built on the site the church of Saint-Pierre de Montmartre , still standing, he also founded The Royal Abbey of Montmartre , a monastery of the Benedictine order , whose buildings, gardens and fields occupied most of Montmartre. He also built a small chapel, called the Martyrium , at the site where it was believed that Saint Denis had been decapitated, it became a popular pilgrimage site.
In the 17th century, a priory called abbaye d'en bas was built at that site, and in it was occupied by a community of nuns. The abbey was destroyed in during the French Revolution , and the convent demolished to make place for gypsum mines; the church of Saint-Pierre was saved. At the place where the chapel of the Martyrs was located now 11 rue Yvonne-Le Tac , an oratory was built in , it was renovated in By the 15th century, the north and northeast slopes of the hill were the site of a village surrounded by vineyards, gardens and orchards of peach and cherry trees; the first mills were built on the western slope in , grinding wheat , barley and rye.
There were thirteen mills at one time, though by the late nineteenth century only two remained, . During the Siege of Paris , in the last decade of the French Wars of Religion , Henry IV placed his artillery on top of the butte of Montmartre to fire down into the city; the siege eventually failed when a large relief force approached and forced Henry to withdraw.
In , Montmartre was located just outside the limits of Paris; that year, under the revolutionary government of the National Constituent Assembly , it became the commune of Montmartre, with its town hall located on place du Tertre , site of the former abbey. The main businesses of the commune were wine making, stone quarries and gypsum mines. See Mines of Paris. The mining of gypsum had begun in the Gallo-Roman period , first in open air mines and then underground, and continued until ; the gypsum was cut into blocks, baked, then ground and put into sacks.
Sold as ' montmartarite , it was used for plaster, because of its resistance to fire and water. Between the 7th and 9th centuries, most of the sarcophagi found in ancient sites were made of molded gypsum. Russian soldiers occupied Montmartre during the battle of Paris in , they used the altitude of the hill for artillery bombardment of the city. Montmartre remained outside of the city limits of Paris until January 1, , when it was annexed to the city along with other communities faubourgs surrounding Paris, and became part of the 18th arrondissement of Paris.
In , Montmartre was the site of beginning of the revolutionary uprising of the Paris Commune. During the Franco-Prussian War , the French army had stored a large number of cannon in a park at the top of the hill, near where the Basilica is today. On 18 March , the soldiers from the French Army tried to remove the cannon from the hilltop, they were blocked by members of the politically-radicalised Paris National Guard , who captured and then killed two French army generals, and installed a revolutionary government that lasted two months.
The heights of Montmartre were retaken by the French Army with heavy fighting at the end of May , during what became known as "Bloody Week". In , the future French prime minister during World War I, Georges Clemenceau , was appointed mayor of the 18th arrondissement, including Montmartre, by the new government of the Third Republic , and was also elected to the National Assembly.
A member of the radical republican party, Clemenceau tried unsuccessfully to find a peaceful compromise between the even more radical Paris Commune and the more conservative French government; the Commune refused to recognize him as mayor, and seized the town hall. He ran for a seat in the council of the Paris Commune, but received less than eight hundred votes, he did not participate in the Commune, and was out of the city when the Commune was suppressed by the French army.
In , he again was elected as deputy for Montmartre and the 18th arrondissement. Le Chat Noir at 84 boulevard de Rochechouart was founded in by Rodolphe Salis , and became a popular haunt for writers and poets; the composer Eric Satie earned money by playing the piano there. Pierre-Auguste Renoir rented space at 12 rue Cortot in to paint Bal du moulin de la Galette , showing a dance at Montmartre on a Sunday afternoon. Several noted composers, including Erik Satie , lived in the neighbourhood.
Most of the artists left after the outbreak of World War I, the majority of them going to the Montparnasse quarter. The last of the bohemian Montmartre artists was Gen Paul — , born in Montmartre and a friend of Utrillo. Paul's calligraphic expressionist lithographs, sometimes memorializing picturesque Montmartre itself, owe a lot to Raoul Dufy. Among the last of the neighborhood's bohemian gathering places was R , an artistic salon frequented by Josephine Baker , Le Corbusier and Django Reinhardt , its name was immortalized by Reinhardt in his tribute song " R.
Many other well known personalities moved through the premises; the mansion in the garden at the back is the oldest hotel on Montmartre, and one of its first owners was Claude de la Rose, a 17th-century actor known as Rosimond , who bought it in Nearby, day and night, tourists visit such sights as Place du Tertre and the cabaret du Lapin Agile , where the artists had worked and gathered. Montmartre is an officially designated historic district with limited development allowed in order to maintain its historic character.
A funicular railway, the Funiculaire de Montmartre , operated by the RATP , ascends the hill from the south while the Montmartre bus circles the hill. Downhill to the southwest is the red-light district of Pigalle ; that area is, today, largely known for a wide variety of stores specializing in instruments for rock music. Commune A commune is an intentional community of people living together, sharing common interests having common values and beliefs, as well as shared property, resources, and, in some communes, income or assets.
In addition to the communal economy, consensus decision-making, non-hierarchical structures and ecological living have become important core principles for many communes. There are many contemporary intentional communities all over the world, a list of which can be found at the Fellowship for Intentional Community. Benjamin Zablocki categorized communities this way: Alternative-family communities Coliving communities Cooperative communities Countercultural communities Egalitarian communities Political communities Psychological communities Rehabilitational communities Religious communities Spiritual communities Experimental communitiesMany communal ventures encompass more than one of these categorizations; some communes, such as the ashrams of the Vedanta Society or the Theosophical commune Lomaland , formed around spiritual leaders, while others formed around political ideologies.
For others, the "glue" is the desire for a more shared, sociable lifestyle. The central characteristics of communes, or core principles that define communes, have been expressed in various forms over the years. Before such communities were known as "communist and socialist settlements"; the term " communitarian " was invented by the Suffolk-born radical John Goodwyn Barmby , subsequently a Unitarian minister. Roberts classified communes as a subclass of a larger category of Utopias, he listed three main characteristics. Communes of this period tended to develop their own characteristics of theory though, so while many strived for variously expressed forms of egalitarianism, Roberts' list should never be read as typical.
Roberts' three listed items were: first, egalitarianism — that communes rejected hierarchy or graduations of social status as being necessary to social order. Second, human scale — that members of some communes saw the scale of society as it was organized as being too industrialized and therefore unsympathetic to human dimensions.
And third, that communes were consciously anti-bureaucratic. Twenty five years Dr. Bill Metcalf, in his edited book Shared Visions, Shared Lives defined communes as having the following core principles: the importance of the group as opposed to the nuclear family unit, a "common purse", a collective household, group decision making in general and intimate affairs. Sharing everyday life and facilities, a commune is an idealized form of family, being a new sort of "primary group".
Commune members have emotional bonds to the whole group rather than to any sub-group , the commune is experienced with emotions which go beyond just social collectivity. Others are based in anthroposophic philosophy, including Camphill villages that provide support for the education and daily lives of adults and children with developmental disabilities, mental health problems or other special needs. Many communes are part of the New Age movement. Many cultures practice communal or tribal living, would not designate their way of life as a planned'commune' per se, though their living situation may have many characteristics of a commune.
In Germany , a large number of the intentional communities define themselves as communes and there is a network of political communes called "Kommuja" with about 30 member groups.
Germany has a long tradition of intentional communities going back to the groups inspired by the principles of Lebensreform in the 19th century. In the s, there was a resurgence of communities calling themselves communes, starting with the Kommune 1 in Berlin , followed by Kommune 2 and Kommune 3 in Wolfsburg.
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Kibbutzim in Israel , are examples of organized communes, the first of which were based on agriculture. Today, there are dozens of urban communes growing in the cities of Israel called urban kibbutzim; the urban kibbutzim are more anarchist. Most of the urban communes in Israel emphasize social change and local involvement in the cities where they live; some of the urban communes have members who are graduates of zionist-socialist youth movements, like Ha. The line 12 platforms were opened on 8 April with the extension of the Nord-Sud Company's line C from Notre-Dame-de-Lorette , it was the northern terminus of line C until its extension to Jules Joffrin on 31 October The subjects of her drawings and paintings included female nudes, female portraits, still lifes, landscapes, she never was never confined within a tradition.
Valadon spent nearly 40 years of her life as an artist. Valadon grew up in poverty with an unmarried laundress. Known to be quite independent and rebellious, she attended primary school until age In , aged 18, Valadon gave birth to Maurice Utrillo. Valadon's mother cared for Maurice. Valadon's friend Miguel Utrillo would sign papers recognizing Maurice as his son, although his true paternity is uncertain. Valadon helped to educate herself in art by reading Toulouse-Lautrec's books and observing the artists at work for whom she posed.
In , Valadon began a short-lived affair with composer Erik Satie , moving to a room next to his on the Rue Cortot. Satie became obsessed with her, calling her his Biqui, writing impassioned notes about "her whole being, lovely eyes, gentle hands, tiny feet", but after six months she left, leaving him devastated.
Valadon married the stockbroker Paul Mousis in , living with him for 13 years in an apartment in Paris and in a house in the outlying region. Valadon married Utter in , he managed her career as well as her son's. Valadon and Utter exhibited work together until the couple divorced in Valadon was well known during her lifetime towards the end of her career. Valadon began working at age 11 in a variety of areas including a milliner's workshop, a factory making funeral wreaths, a market selling vegetables, a waitress, finally in the circus.
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Through this connection she began work at the Mollier circus as an acrobat until she fell from a trapeze after a year of work. The circus was frequented by artists such as Lautrec and Berthe Morisot and it is believed this is where Morisot did her painting of Valadon.
In the Montmartre quarter of Paris, she pursued her interest in art, first working as a model for artists and learning their techniques, before becoming a noted painter herself, she began painting full-time in She modeled under the name "Maria" being nicknamed "Suzanne" by Toulouse-Lautrec her lover, after the biblical story of Susanna and the Elders as he felt that she liked modelling for older artists, she was considered a focused, rebellious, self-confident, passionate woman.
In the early s, she befriended Edgar Degas who, impressed with her bold line drawings and fine paintings, purchased her work and encouraged her. Art historian Heather Dawkins believed that Valadon's experience as a model added depth to her own images of nude women, which tended to be less idealized than that of the male post impressionists representations; the most recognizable image of Valadon would be in Renoir's Dance at Bougival from , the same year that she posed for Dance in the City. Another of his portraits of her in , Suzanne Valadon , is of her head and shoulders in profile.
Valadon frequented the bars and taverns of Paris with her fellow painters, she was Toulouse-Lautrec's subject in his oil painting The Hangover , it is believed that Valadon taught herself how to draw at the age of nine. Valadon painted still lifes, portraits and landscapes that are noted for their strong composition and vibrant colors. She was, best known for her candid female nudes that depict women's bodies from a woman's perspective. Due to the social norms of the time looking down upon it, Valadon was made famous for her work on the female nude form.
Valadon was not confined to a specific style, yet both Symbolist and Post-Impressionist aesthetics are seen within her work. Valadon's earliest surviving signed and dated work is a self-portrait from , drawn in charcoal and pastel , she produced drawings between and , began painting in Her first models were family members her son and niece, her earliest known female nude was executed in In , the art dealer Paul Durand-Ruel exhibited a group of twelve etchings by Valadon that show women in various stages of their toilettes, she showed at Galerie Bernheim-Jeune in Paris.
Valadon's first time in the Salon de la Nationale was in , she exhibited in the Salon d'Automne from , Salon des Independants from Degas was notably the first person to buy drawings from her, he introduced her to other collectors, including Paul Durand-Ruel and Ambroise Vollard. Degas taught her the skill of soft-ground etching. In , Valadon became a full-time painter after her marriage to the well-to-do banker Paul Mousis, she made a shift from drawing to painting startin.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec Henri Marie Raymond de Toulouse-Lautrec-Monfa known as Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec , was a French painter, draughtsman and illustrator whose immersion in the colourful and theatrical life of Paris in the late 19th century allowed him to produce a collection of enticing and provocative images of the modern, sometimes decadent , affairs of those times. His younger brother died the following year.
If he had outlived his father, Toulouse-Lautrec would have succeeded to the family title of Comte. After the death of his brother, Toulouse-Lautrec's parents separated and a nanny took care of him. At the age of eight, Toulouse-Lautrec went to live with his mother in Paris where he drew sketches and caricatures in his exercise workbooks; the family realized that his talents lay in drawing and painting. Toulouse-Lautrec's parents, the Comte and Comtesse, were first cousins, he suffered from congenital health conditions sometimes attributed to a family history of inbreeding.
At the age of 13, Toulouse-Lautrec fractured his right femur.
Cimetière SAINT-VINCENT de Montmartre
At 14, he fractured his left; the breaks did not heal properly. Modern physicians attribute this to an unknown genetic disorder pycnodysostosis , or a variant disorder along the lines of osteopetrosis , achondroplasia , or osteogenesis imperfecta. Rickets aggravated by praecox virilism has been suggested. Afterwards, his legs ceased to grow, so that as an adult he was short, he developed an adult-sized torso, while retaining his child-sized legs.
Additionally, he is reported to have had hypertrophied genitals. Physically unable to participate in many activities enjoyed by males his age, Toulouse-Lautrec immersed himself in art, he became an important Post-Impressionist painter, art nouveau illustrator, lithographer , through his works, recorded many details of the lateth-century bohemian lifestyle in Paris. Toulouse-Lautrec contributed a number of illustrations to the magazine Le Rire during the mids.
After failing college entrance exams, he passed his second attempt and completed his studies. Toulouse-Lautrec's mother had high ambitions and, with the aim of her son becoming a fashionable and respected painter, used their family's influence to get him into Bonnat's studio.
He was drawn to Montmartre , the area of Paris famous for its bohemian lifestyle and the haunt of artists and philosophers. Studying with Bonnat placed Toulouse-Lautrec in the heart of Montmartre, an area he left over the next 20 years. After Bonnat took a new job, Toulouse-Lautrec moved to the studio of Fernand Cormon in and studied for a further five years and established the group of friends he kept for the rest of his life.
At this time he met Vincent van Gogh. Cormon, whose instruction was more relaxed than Bonnat's, allowed his pupils to roam Paris, looking for subjects to paint.
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During this period, Toulouse-Lautrec had his first encounter with a prostitute , which led him to paint his first painting of a prostitute in Montmartre, a woman rumoured to be Marie-Charlet. From until , Toulouse-Lautrec took part in the Independent Artists ' Salon on a regular basis, he made several landscapes of Montmartre. Tucked deep into Montmartre in the garden of Monsieur Pere Foret, Toulouse-Lautrec executed a series of pleasant plein-air paintings of Carmen Gaudin , the same red-headed model who appears in The Laundress ; when the Moulin Rouge cabaret opened, Toulouse-Lautrec was commissioned to produce a series of posters.
His mother had left Paris and, though he had a regular income from his family, ma. Access to the platforms is by elevators, but they are accessed by decorated stairs. The station opened on 30 January , three months after the extension of the Nord-Sud company's line A from Pigalle to Jules Joffrin. The entrance is technically anachronistic , since line 12 of the Paris metro was built by a competing firm, the Nord-Sud Company , which did not hire Guimard but engaged other architects to design its stations and station entrances. Though set at Abbesses station, the film was shot at Porte des Lilas station, which has a disused platform, specially set up for filming; the entrance to Abbesses metro station is featured near the beginning of music video for Howard Jones' What Is Love as well as several other locations around Paris Louis Vuitton has a messenger style bag in the Monogram Canvas line named after the station.
Featured in multiple scenes of the final episode of Netflix original series Sense8. Artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach defensive walls, fortifications during sieges, led to heavy immobile siege engines; as technology improved, more mobile field artillery cannons developed for battlefield use. This development continues today. In its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour.
Since the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the word "artillery" has meant cannon, in contemporary usage, it refers to shell-firing guns, howitzers and rocket artillery. In common speech, the word artillery is used to refer to individual devices, along with their accessories and fittings, although these assemblages are more properly called "equipments". However, there is no recognised generic term for a gun, mortar , so forth: the United States uses "artillery piece", but most English-speaking armies use "gun" and "mortar".
The projectiles fired are either "shot" or "shell". By association, artillery may refer to the arm of service that customarily operates such engines. In some armies one arm has operated field, anti-aircraft artillery and anti-tank artillery, in others these have been separate arms and in some nations coastal has been a naval or marine responsibility. In the 20th century technology based target acquisition devices, such as radar, systems, such as sound ranging and flash spotting, emerged to acquire targets for artillery; these are operated by one or more of the artillery arms. The widespread adoption of indirect fire in the early 20th century introduced the need for specialist data for field artillery, notably survey and meteorological, in some armies provision of these are the responsibility of the artillery arm.
Artillery originated for use against ground targets—against infantry and other artillery.
An early specialist development was coastal artillery for use against enemy ships. The early 20th century saw the development of a new class of artillery for use against aircraft: anti-aircraft guns. Artillery is arguably the most lethal form of land-based armament employed, has been since at least the early Industrial Revolution ; the majority of combat deaths in the Napoleonic Wars , World War I , World War II were caused by artillery.
In , Joseph Stalin said in a speech that artillery was "the God of War ". Although not called as such, machines performing the role recognizable as artillery have been employed in warfare since antiquity. Historical references show artillery was first employed by the Roman legions at Syracuse in BC; until the introduction of gunpowder into western warfare, artillery was dependent upon mechanical energy which not only limited the kinetic energy of the projectiles, it required the construction of large engines to store sufficient energy.
A 1st-century BC Roman catapult launching 6. From the Middle Ages through most of the modern era, artillery pieces on land were moved by horse-drawn gun carriages. In the contemporary era, artillery pieces and their crew relied on wheeled or tracked vehicles as transportation; these land versions of artillery were dwarfed by railway guns, which includes the largest super-gun conceived, theoretically capable of putting a satellite into orbit.
Artillery used by naval forces has changed with missiles replacing guns in surface warfare.