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Due to tighter social networks in rural environments, both demand and supply offered by opportunities to work informally together are greater, and are said to some degree to require people to take part in such activities as part of their social obligations to the community. The implication is that Nachbarschaftshilfe is more often perceived to be legal in rural areas than in urban environments.

Consequentially, the perception of legality is shifting.

Ben Wray: State Aid – Not Immigration – Is the Debate About the EU We Should Have Had

Generally, the compensation for labour provided in this context can come in the form of barter trade, money or labour itself. Seen from a legal perspective, any agreement on remuneration shifts these transactions from the legal into the illegal sphere, even though the people involved may regards the informal agreements as being entirely normative. Lamnek et al [18] continue to argue that the higher degree of solidary usually found in rural networks as compared with their urban counterparts leads to a phenomenon in which informal labour is not immediately remunerated, but often repaid after some period of time.

If this is the case, the remuneration might consists of labour being provided for a person who was not even been part of the initial transaction Lamnek et al [19]. It follows that Nachbarschaftshilfe in both its legal and illegal form is more prevalent in rural communities and is in fact an important social element contributing to the well being of the social group.

However, this does not imply that the practice is totally unknown in urban environments. Rather, the motivation for engaging in Nachbarschaftshilfe shifts noticeably in an urban environment from a combination of monetary and social incentives, to a stronger focus on financial tax advantages. The expression Nachbarschaftshilfe itself is often used synonymously with other practices such as Pfusch. The latter however can have one of two meanings, and it depends on the context on which interpretation is applicable.

In the context of Nachbarschaftshilfe , Pfusch is of work that is being carried out illegally, i. It is synonymous with Schwarzarbeit moonlighting and as term especially frequently used in Austria Politik-Lexikon [20]. It is therefore an expression describing the work usually carried out by a professional to evade the payment of taxes. Other terms that are frequently used in order to describe illegal labour include Informeller Sektor informal sector and Schattenwirtschaft shadow economy. Per definition, these terms are not actual synonyms of Nachbarchaftshilfe , but rather umbrella terms that can include the informal part of this practice Enste [22] , Enste and Schneider [23] , Meyer [24].

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Nachbarschaftshilfe (Germany) - Global Informality Project

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Land can be bought up not to use productively, but simply to prevent competitors getting hold of it. Furthermore, if we look at the economy through the lens of climate change, the idea that the state should not intervene strategically to control and direct key aspects of production and investment is positively deranged. Looked at in that way, it is a major problem that state aid rules essentially forbid a Green New Deal, which is all about the state intervening selectively in the economy to overhaul infrastructure, make housing and transport energy efficient and so forth.

Lauren Dingsdale, a prospective Labour candidate in Middlesbrough and former lawyer specialising in European Competition Law, has argued on Twitter that this is exactly what the Tories are up to in the case of British Steel, with Business Secretary Greg Clark repeatedly referring to EU state aid rules to down-play his power over the future of the company. Many other EU countries intervene in their own economies to a far greater extent than Britain does but do not always fall foul of state aid rules, finding a way around them.

The company is still on the verge of closure if no new contracts can be found. But French energy giant EDF own the site, and it looks like they are going to give most of the contract to an Indonesian firm rather than Bifab. A university education is becoming a commodity. Just look at the United States. Like King Midas before it , whatever neo-liberalism touches turns to gold, but is dead.